More than 85% of American homes have hard water. Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. It is usually caused by the presence in the water of Calcium, Magnesium and Bicarbonate which become more soluble as the temperature rises. Despite its name, permanent hardness can be removes using an Aqua Innovative Systems water conditioner. The calcium and magnesium ions are exchanged with the sodium ions in the column and then flushed out thru the drain.
Hard water causes scaling, which is the left-over mineral deposits which are found after the hard water has evaporated. This scale can and will eventually clog pipes, ruin water heaters, coat the insides of tea and coffee pots and decrease the life of toilet flushing units. Scaling or also known as limescale is that hard, off-white, chalky deposits that can be found on the tip of your showerhead or kitchen faucet. This scaling when it accumulates inside your hot water tank will prevent it from working efficiently
In the United States, the softest water occurs in parts of New England, Pacific Northwest, and Hawaii regions. Hard water is common in the waters on Tennessee, Georgia, Florida, Great Lakes and Alaska. The hardest water is found in Texas, Arizona, Kansas and southern California.
In Europe, the softest water is found in the Scandinavia and the British Isles, while the hardest water is found in the southern Iberia peninsula especially in the regions of the Algarve (Portugal) and western Andalucía (Spain).
Reducing water hardness may increase its ability to remove bacteria from boiled chicken skin, according to the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists in Athens, Ga. It also stated that most water tested in the United States had some degree of hardness.
Microbiologist Arthur Hinton Jr and chemist Ronald Holser of the ARS Richard B. Russell Research Center in Athens conducted studies comparing the ability of very hard, moderately hard, and “soft” water to rinse away bacteria like Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas from the skin of broiler chicken carcasses.
After five rinses in each water type, soft water removed up to 37 percent more bacteria from the chicken skin than did the other two water types.